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# Appliances

## Â

## Properties

### Shower

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | NA | NA |

Volume Mean | Shower flow rate is modelled using a log-normal distribution.
| L/min* | >= 0 |

Volume SD | Shower flow rate is modelled using a log-normal distribution.
| L/min* | > 0 |

Duration Mean | Shower duration is modelled using a log-normal distribution.
| min* | >= 0 |

Duration SD | Shower duration is modelled using a log-normal distribution.
| min* | > 0 |

Daily Prob | Average number of showers/person/day | none | >= 0 |

Â * Units are for the log-normal distribution.

### Dishwasher

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | NA | NA |

Volume | The volume of water used by the dishwasher during each minute of a 20 minute cycle. It is not currently possible to distribute the water use over a cycle greater than 20 minutes in length. | L | >= 0 |

### Hand Tap

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | NA | NA |

Volume | Average litres per usage event | L | >= 0 |

### Toilet

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | NA | NA |

Full Volume | The average volume of a full flush for a single or dual-flush toilet | L | >= 0 |

Full Daily Prob | Average number of full toilet flushes/person/day for single or dual-flush toilets | none | >= 0 |

Half Volume | The average volume of a half toilet flush for a single or dual-flush toilet | L | >= 0 |

Half Daily Prob | Average number of half toilet flushes/person/day for dual-flush toilets | none | >= 0 |

### Washing Machine

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | NA | NA |

Vol Mean | Mean volume of a washing machine event | L | >= 0 |

Vol SD | Standard deviation of a washing machine event | L | > 0 |

Distribution | The distribution used to model the washing machine water usage per event. Options are: - Normal
- Log-normal
If a log-normal distribution is selected, then | NA | NA |

### Pool

Property | Description | Units | Constraints |
---|---|---|---|

Name | The name of the appliance type | L | >= 0 |

Surface Area | The pool surface area | m^{2} | >= 0 |

Initial Depth | The depth of water in the pool at the start of the simulation | m | >= 0 |

Maximum Depth | The maximum depth of the pool | m | >= 0 |

### Default Appliance Types

The table below lists the default appliance types for each end-use category. Water efficiency star ratings are based on WELS scheme (AS/NZS6400:2005, Water Efficient Products - Rating and Labelling)

End-use Category | Default Appliance Types |
---|---|

Shower | 0, 1, 2 or 3-star shower head |

Dishwasher | Dishwasher, no dishwasher |

Washing Machine | Top loader, front loader |

Hand Tap | Standard, no tap |

Toilet | Dual flush 4.5/3 litre (4-Star) Dual flush 6/3 litre (3-Star) Dual flush 9/4.5 litre (1-Star) Dual flush 11/6 litre (0-Star) Single flush 10 litre (0-Star) |

Pool | Pool, no pool |

## User Interface

*AppliancesÂ *are configured via the Urban Settings menu (Figure 1), allocatingÂ Default appliance types for each end-use category. The daily diurnal pattern is a time series used by the Average and Behavioural Water Use nodes to disaggregate daily demand into sub-daily values.

###### Figure 1 Appliances user interface

## Technical Details

The water consumption models for each of the end-use categories are detailed in Thyer *et al.* (2009) and references cited therein.

The application of these models to simulate the temporal variability in water use events is described in the behavioural model.

## References

Roberts, P. (2005). 2004 Residential End Use Measurement Study, Final Report: Yarra Valley Water, Victoria.

Thyer, M.A., Duncan, H., Coombes, P., Kuczera, G. and Micevski, T. (2009) *A Probabilistic Behavioural Approach for the Dynamic Modelling of Indoor Household Water Use*. 32nd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, 30 November â€“ 3 December 2009, Newcastle, Australia.